Drying results in capillary pressure that causes shrinkage. If significant contraction occurs, the stiffness of the body generally increases. Given knowledge of the capillary pressure and the mechanical properties of the solid phase, the final shrinkage of the body can be predicted. The following papers provide the theoretical framework and experimental verification of the predictions.
“Effect of Inclusions on Shrinkage”, G.W. Scherer, pp. 503-514 in Better Ceramics Through Chemistry IV, eds. B.J.J. Zelinski, C.J. Brinker, D.E. Clark, and D.R. Ulrich (Mat. Res. Soc., Pittsburgh, PA, 1990)
“Shrinkage during drying of silica gel”, D.M. Smith, G.W. Scherer, and J.M. Anderson, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 188 (1995) 191-206
“Fundamentals of drying and shrinkage”, G.W. Scherer, pp. 199-211 in Science of Whitewares, eds. V.E. Henkes, G.Y. Onoda, and W.M. Carty (Am. Ceram. Soc., Westerville, OH, 1996)
“Shrinkage of silica gels aged in TEOS”, G.W. Scherer, S. Hæreid, E. Nilson, and M.A. Einarsrud, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 202 [1-2] (1996) 42-52
“Effect of Precursor and Hydrolysis Conditions on Drying Shrinkage”, M.-A. Einarsrud, E. Nilsen, and George W. Scherer, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 221 [2,3] (1997) 135-143